Friday, November 01, 2013

principles of communications, 2013/2014, end of week #3 to L10

This week we covered routing -

there's one egregious error on the slide explaining Dijkstra's algorithm in Link State where the sign on the comparison is the wrong way round (well spotted students!) - I leave it as an exercise for you to find, as it makes for careful reading:-)

In Sparse Mode, we use Rendezvous Points to coordinate a single RPF tree around a designated/configured router (maybe one for each of a different block or subset of multicast addresses) - there's no guarantee the RP is in a sensible place, although the switch from RP centric tree to source based tree after an traffic flows helps reduce latency -  automatic placement of an RP to be in the "centre" of the group would be a solution to the Steiner Tree (Min spanning tree) problem which is NP-Hard, although there are polynomial time approximation algorithms for it (but you probably wouldn't deploy them in routers, but in a network management system for e.g. a gamer or trader network, this might be sensible)

One other note - consistency, symmetry of routes, and so on - IP and IP routing make no guarantees about this at all! BGP (inter-AS routes) are often asymmetric...recent computer science work on building new protocols that provide global consistency during route update and computation does exist, but is still research, largely....although the techniques are promising!

Next week, errors, then flow and congestion control.

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